Laxmikant – Pyarelal: Hindi Film Industry’s Most Prolific Music Directors

[This post originally appeared here.]

Laxmikant – Pyarelal are easily the most prolific of Hindi film music directors. Their career spanned almost four decades, during which they worked for around 500 films and composed 2500+ songs. Other than the quality of their music, they owed their long careers to their relationships in the industry, their reputation of producing music that sold and the clear division of labour amongst the two – Laxmikant composed the tunes and Pyarelal arranged and orchestrated them. While Laxmikant was an accomplished mandolin player, Pyarelal was a violin virtuoso. Madan Mohan’s classic “Main Yeh Soch Kar Uske Dar Se Utha Tha” (“Haqeeqat”, 1964) is a fine example of what Pyarelal was capable of with the violin. Pyarelal, whose birthday comes up on September 3, is one of the last living composers from his generation of music directors.

Given their large body of work, I put one limiting condition to pick songs from their 10 best film albums – a cutoff year of 1985.

Dosti (1964)

Laxmikant – Pyarelal started their career assisting Kalyanji – Anandji. Their debut as music director was “Parasmani” (1963), a competent album with the standout ghazal duet “Woh Jab Yaad Aaye” and the hit song “Hansta Hua Noorani Chehra”. If “Parasmani” got them noticed, “Dosti” (1964) signaled that they had arrived. “Dosti” became a sleeper hit despite an obscure cast, thanks in part to its stellar music for which Laxmikant – Pyarelal won their first Filmfare Award for Best Music Director. The music of “Dosti” and Rafi saab’s phenomenal singing in it grows on me every time I listen to it. My pick from the film is the song that won Mohammed Rafi the Filmfare Award for Best Playback Singer – “Chahoonga Main Tujhe Sanjh Savere”.

Milan (1967)

In “Milan”, Laxmikant decided to use Mukesh’s voice for Sunil Dutt. Despite the director’s trepidations about Mukesh’s ability to hit high notes, the duo persisted with him and produced their most substantial score with the singer. The film won Laxmikant – Pyarelal their second Filmfare Award and helped boost Anand Bakshi’s career. My pick from the film is the folksy, Mukesh – Lata duet “Sawan Ka Mahina Pawan Kare Sor”, a hummable tune and a fine example of Anand Bakshi’s conversational lyrics.

Mere Hamdam Mere Dost (1968) 

“Mere Hamdam Mere Dost” had a soundtrack that had something for everybody and starred three actors at their eye candy best – Dharmendra, Sharmila Tagore and Mumtaz. I particularly like “Na Ja Kahin Ab Na Ja” a mellow, feel-good Rafi solo, “Chalo Sajna Jahan Tak Ghata Chale” a pretty Lata solo, “Allah Ye Ada” a qawwali-based, multi-tempoed song with some very cool harkats by Lata Mangeshkar, Rafi’s “druken” solo “Chhalka Yeh Jaam” and my pick, the S.D. Burman flavoured Rafi ghazal “Hui Shaam Unka Khayal Aa Gaya”. One of my favorite things about this album was the by and large subtle arrangement used in the songs. Unfortunately, with each passing year, I found arrangements in L-P’s songs a tad overdone for my taste.

Do Raaste (1969)

With the spectacular success of “Aradhana” released just a month ago, Rajesh Khanna’s new-found superstardom gave “Do Raaste” a powerful jump start and ensured that the film and its music became a blockbuster hit. This despite the fact that Rajesh Khanna’s role was part of romantic sub-plot in what was essentially a family drama with an ensemble cast. Laxmikant – Pyarelal and Anand Bakshi created simple songs that the masses identified with and helped bring big turnouts at the box office. Interestingly, Kishore Kumar was yet to emerge as Rajesh Khanna’s voice and two of the three songs filmed on Rajesh Khanna were sung by Mohammed Rafi. My pick, however, is the Kishore Kumar song, “Mere Naseeb Mein Ae Dost Tera Pyar Nahin”.

Mehboob Ki Mehndi (1971)

In the 1960s, 1970s, no music director’s career was complete without a film belonging to that quaint genre called the Muslim social. For Laxmikant – Pyarelal, that film was “Mehboob Ki Mehndi”. Although weighed down by a sketchy plot and Leena Chandavarkar’s limited acting talent, the film did well thanks to Rajesh Khanna’s star power, some crackling dialogues by Gulzar and of course, Laxmikant – Pyarelal’s ghazal and qawwali infused music. My pick from the film is “Jaane Kyun Log Mohabbat Kiya Karte Hain” a song about heartbreak with an uncharacteristically upbeat arrangement. The contrast between the perky rhythm and the pathos in Lata’s singing and the lyrics is quite interesting.

Daag (1973) 

“Daag” was one of the six films in which Laxmikant – Pyarelal worked with Sahir Ludhianvi and easily the most successful. A couple of things strike me about “Daag”. One, it appeared to me that Laxmikant – Pyarelal tried to emulate R.D. Burman in a couple of songs, “Hum Aur Tum Tum Aur Hum” and “Hawa Chale Aise”. Two, the film seemed to mark a period in L-P’s career when they started favouring fairly heavy, dholak-laden arrangements. My opinion does not matter of course, as this seemed to work very well with filmgoers and music listeners of the time. My favorite song from the film is the Lata solo “Hawa Chale Kaise” and it’s underlying melody. I also like how the song’s mood changes from one of hope to one of unbridled joy as the tempo picks up and a chorus comes in.

Anurodh (1977) 

“Anurodh” again saw Laxmikant – Pyarelal giving music in the mould of R.D. Burman’s. This time it was based on the brief given by director Shakti Samanta, who apparently did not want to deviate from the Rajesh Khanna – R.D. Burman formula he had perfected with “Kati Patang” (1970), “Amar Prem” (1971), “Ajanabee” (1974) and “Mehbooba” (1976) but couldn’t get R.D. Burman for the film for some reason. My favourite from the film is the Raag Yaman based, “Aap Ke Anurodh Pe” with a nice sitar, santoor, sarod, tabla arrangement. The song is one of the few occasions in which L-P and Kishore Kumar forayed in the semi-classical space.

Satyam Shivam Sundaram (1978) 

Laxmikant – Pyarelal pulled a coup of sorts with “Satyam Shivam Sundaram”. Raj Kapoor had initially planned to use Hridayanath Mangeshkar for the film’s music but later decided to employ L-P. A miffed Lata Mangeshkar decided to walk out of the film and agreed to come back on board on her brother’s advice. One suspects that her decision was made easier because it was L-P and not some other music director who was replacing her brother. My pick is the spectacular title song, a bhajan based on Raag Darbari Kanada. Lata Mangeshkar’s brilliant rendition, Pandit Narendra Sharma’s lyrics and Zeenat Aman’s smouldering sexuality onscreen are a potent combination.

Karz (1980)

“Karz” was another instance of a director, Subhash Ghai this time, asking Laxmikant – Pyarelal specifically to produce the Pancham brand of music. Although one wonders what may have been if Pancham himself had composed the music for “Karz”, it must be said that L-P more than delivered and produced a cracker of a soundtrack. My favorite song from the film is “Om Shanti Om” and I would have picked it for this post, had it not been for the fact that the song is a pretty faithful reproduction of a song with the same hook line by the calypso artist Lord Shorty. My next favorite song from the film is the only Rafi song in the film “Dard-E-Dil Dard-E-Jigar”. This is a specially complex Laxmikant composition and Pyarelal’s elaborate, meandering arrangement is a work of art.

Utsav (1984)

The 1980s wasn’t a great time for music in Hindi films and it could be argued that Laxmikant – Pyarelal were past their prime. At a time like this, the music of “Utsav” came like a breath of fresh air and we saw a side of L-P that we unfortunately did not see very often. The duo delivered an extremely melodic score steeped in classical music with simple, tasteful arrangements. My pick from the film is the lovely “Saanjh Dhale Gagan Tale” with some very pretty lyrics by Vasant Dev and rendered brilliantly by Suresh Wadkar. I wish we had seen more of this L-P in the years to come.

A 10 film/10 song pick from a discography as large as Laxmikant – Pyarelal’s is bound to be contentious so I’ll leave you with a much bigger L-P selection to dig through and explore.

PS: When the original post was published, a reader pointed out the glaring omission of “Bobby” (1973) in this list. My rationale for omitting “Bobby”? It was said that the songs for the film were from a song bank of tunes composed by Shankar – Jaikishan for Raj Kapoor and that Laxmikant – Pyarelal only arranged the songs. Given this, I decided to play safe and leave “Bobby” out.

Tonga Songs In Hindi Films

[This post originally appeared here.]

The key feature of the Hindi film tonga song was a rhythm that evoked the clip-clop of a horse pulling a carriage. Although he didn’t invent the tonga rhythm, O.P. Nayyar was probably the most skilled at it. He dominated a crowd-sourced tonga song playlist I put together some time ago (the most comprehensive list I’ve seen), with 14 out of the total of 83 songs. Surprisingly, Naushad and Roshan also appear a lot in this list, with 10 and 6 songs respectively.

Most of these songs showed the hero and heroine romancing but there were some exceptions – one had sons singing to their mother – Usko Nahin Dekha Humne Kabhi (Daadi Maa, 1966) – and another dedicated to Kolkatta – Sunoji Yeh Kalkatta Hai (Howrah Bridge, 1958). Many of these song actually involved a tonga on-screen but some had a horse but no carriage – Mere Sang Sang Aaya (Rajput, 1982) and there were others that had no horse at all – Bach Gaye Hum Dono Phanste Phanste (Chacha Zindabad, 1959). It appears that the 1950s were the golden era of tonga songs. After a sputtering start in the 1940s (3 songs), we saw 38 tonga songs in the 1950s. Each subsequent decade saw progressively fewer tonga songs – 1960s – 24, 1970s – 12, 1980s – 6, 1990s – 2 and none since then. Art does imitate life.

In this post I pick 10 tonga songs, some because they are my favourites and others because they tell a story.

Chale Pawan Ki Chaal Jag Mein (Doctor, 1941)

It can safely be said that the inventor of the tonga rhythm in Hindi films was Pankaj Mullick. The tonga beats were apparently created using coconut shells. Pankaj Mullick not only composed and sang this tonga song, he also played appeared onscreen riding the tonga – Doctor (1941) was one of the few films in which he acted. Incidentally, Doctor (1941) had another path-breaking use of rhythm – Aayi Bahaar Aaj – only this time it was Pankaj Mullick simulating the rhythm of a train.

Bachpan Ke Din Bhula Na Dena (Deedar, 1951)

This is my favorite tonga song by Naushad. There are two versions of the songs. The first one is sung by Lata Mangeshkar and Shamshad Begum and represents the love and hope of Dilip Kumar and Nargis’s characters in their childhood. The second is a Mohd. Rafi solo which represents the angst of unfulfilled love. I pick the Rafi solo because, leaving aside the excessive melodrama of the song’s climax, the Dilip Kumar and Nargis are a sight to behold.

Piya Piya Piya Mera Jiya Pukare (Baap Re Baap, 1955)

This is O.P. Nayyar duet is one of my most favorite tonga songs and has some excellent yodeling by Kishore Kumar. I also love it for the story behind it and what it tells us about Kishore Kumar. In the second antara after Kishore Kumar’s line, Asha Bhosle started to sing out of turn and then stopped after she realized her mistake and Kishore Kumar carried on. Distressed by the mistake, Asha Bhosle wanted to redo the song but Kishore Kumar asked her not to worry. He said that he was the hero in the movie, and that he would cover on the heroine’s mouth when she sang out of turn to hide the blooper (at 1:49 in the video).

Tumsa Nahin Dekha (Tumsa Nahin Dekha, 1957)

Tumsa Nahin Dekha (1957) was a big hit and its success – a big part of it attributable directly to O.P. Nayyar’s vibrant, youthful music – transformed two careers. Nasir Hussain struck gold in his debut as director and went on to enjoy a long, fruitful career as a producer, director. Shammi Kapoor, who got the role after Dev Anand rejected it, got his first hit film and became a star almost overnight. The film’s title song was the only song in film written by Sahir Ludhianvi, who walked out of the film after he developed differences with Nasir Hussain. It’s a wonder how the effervescence of O.P. Nayyar’s music in this tonga song contains and strengthens so many possible points of failure – a debutant director, a struggling actor and a mercurial lyricist who would walk out from the film.

Maang Ke Saath Tumhara (Naya Daur, 1957)

While O.P. Nayyar did the heavy lifting in “Tumsa Nahin Dekha”, “Naya Daur” was a solid project with the competent B.R. Chopra at the helm, Dilip Kumar at his peak and some great writing. O.P. Nayyar’s music and Sahir’s lyrics were the delicious icing on the cake. “Maang Ke Saath Tumhara” is the quintessential tonga song, a light, frothy duet by Mohd. Rafi and Asha Bhosle that works specially well in the film because Dilip Kumar’s character is a tongawala.

Banda Parvar Thaam Lo Jigar (Phir Wohi Dil Laya Hoon, 1963)

There were two crucial enablers in Joy Mukherjee’s career. The first enabler was his father, producer S. Mukherjee, who launched him in “Love In Simla” (1960), under his banner, Filmalaya and produced many of his films. The second enabler was the fantastic music his films seemed to be blessed with. His debut film “Love In Simla” had some decent songs by Iqbal Qureshi but his career was elevated to a completely different level over his next two films – “Ek Musafir Ek Hasina” (1962) and “Phir Wohi Dil Laya Hoon” (1963) – thanks to O.P. Nayyar’s blockbuster music. “Banda Parwar…” might have been a standard O.P. Nayyar tonga song – upbeat and eminently hummable – but it has a an additional ingredient that puts it in a class of its own – the subtle strains of a sarangi.

Zara Haule Haule Chalo More Saajna (Sawan Ki Ghata, 1966)

This tonga song, featuring the unlikely pair of Manoj Kumar and Sharmila Tagore, appears on this list simply because I absolutely adore how Asha Bhosle sounds in it. O.P. Nayyar does that trick again where he contrasts an upbeat rhythm with a haunting violin solo to devastating effect.

Usko Nahin Dekha Humne Kabhi (Daadi Maa, 1966)

This is an uncharacteristic tonga song – a male duet sung by Mahendra Kapoor and Manna Dey, a theme other than romance and one in which the element of melody is just as prominent as the rhythm. This is the only Roshan song in this list, but as I mentioned earlier, not the only tonga song he composed.

Koi Haseena Jab Rooth Jaati Hai Toh (Sholay, 1975)

This crackling Kishore Kumar solo is R.D. Burman’s only entry in this list. Given how good he was with rhythm I wonder why he didn’t compose more tonga songs. What may be considered as a creepy, stalker song today was playfully charming when it came out. Mercifully, Veeru wins over Basanti’s affections by the end of the song. This is a rare tonga song in which we know the name of the horse mare – Dhanno. For a film that recently completed 40 years, it’s amazing how fresh Sholay is in the public mind.

Ello Ji Sanam Hum Aa Gaye (Andaz Apna Apna, 1994)

“Andaz Apna Apna” had some decent retro music before it became cool to feature retro music in films. We don’t know if the film’s music was a result of director Raj Kumar Santoshi’s vision but we do know that the film’s music director, Tushar Bhatia, as an inveterate O.P. Nayyar fan. “Ello Ji Sanam….” was his tribute to O.P. Nayyar’s famed tonga music. Andaz Apna Apna went on to become a cult classic but it remained Tushar Bhatia’s only film as composer as he went on to pursue a career in media.

The era of tonga songs may have passed but they still serve as a reminder of a slower, gentler time.

(Contributors to the tonga playlist – @kaurvaki, @Ajaythetwit, @Kablewala, @p1j.)

Patriotic Songs In Hindi Films Before Independence

[This post originally appeared here.]

Patriotism has always been an important theme in Hindi films. Films like Anand Math (1952), Haqeeqat (1964), Shaheed (1965), Upkar (1967), Kranti (1981), Prahaar (1991), Border (1997), The Legend Of Bhagat Singh (2002), Swades (2004) and Rang De Basanti (2006) had strong patriotic themes. There are many film songs capable of inducing nationalistic fervour in the most apathetic of individuals. However, these films and songs were made in an independent India with no oversight from British rule. Imagine the spirit of the film-makers and artists who were involved in patriotic films and songs when India was still under the British rule! In this post, I talk about 5 songs that made exhortations for a free India before 1947.

Ek Naya Sansar Basa Len (Naya Sansar, 1941)

The first song in this list, sung by Ashok Kumar and Renuka Devi, is by a poet who would go on to be called Rashtrakavi – Kavi Pradeep. Pradeep was perhaps best known for writing the Lata Mangeshkar song that moved Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru to tears – “Aye Mere Watan Ke Logon”. “Ek Naya Sansar” quite explicitly makes a call for a free India, with lines like “..azadi ke preet ke gaane…” and “Aisa ek sansar ke jisme dharti ho azad, ke jisme jeevan ho azad, ke jisme bharat ho azad”. It’s a wonder how the song got past the draconian British censor board. It was this censor board that had forced V. Shantaram to change the name of his 1935 film from “Mahatma” to “Dharmatma”. The British apparently didn’t want films to contribute to the popularity of a certain Mahatma.

Door Hato Ae Duniya Walon Hindustan Humara Hai (Kismet, 1943)

Kavi Pradeep wrote this song during the Quit India movement. “Door Hato” was quite literally a demand for the British to quit India. To avoid objections by the censor board, Pradeep used the line “Tum Na Kise Ke Aage Jhukna German Ho Ya Japani” to make it appear that the song was against the Axis powers of World War II. Anil Biswas’ use of a marching band arrangement, Amirbai Karnataki’s powerful voice and a superb chorus complemented Pradeep’s lyrics and resulted in a hugely popular song.

Hindustan Ke Hum Hain Hindustan Humara (Pahele Aap, 1944)

This was Mohd. Rafi’s first song. Although he had recorded for “Gaon Ki Gori” earlier, the film’s music was released only in 1945. We can sense the young Rafi’s tentativeness, but thanks to some good music by Naushad, inspiring lyrics by D.N. Madhok and the support of a chorus, the end result is quite good. The interesting thing about this song is that while it calls of “India for Indians”, it talks about a common goal across religious divides – something we seem to be struggling with to this day.

Jana Gana Mana Adhinayaka Jay Hey (Humrahi, 1945)

When “Jana Gana Mana Adhinayaka…” appeared on screen for the first time, India wasn’t an independent country and the song was yet to be chosen as our national anthem. “Humrahi” was Bimal Roy’s Hindi film debut as director and was a remake of the Bengali film “Udayer Pathe” he had directed the previous year. The song was recorded by the film’s music director R.C. Boral and rendered by a choir. While the original Rabindranath Tagore hymn had five stanzas, the first of which became the national anthem, the film recorded only four stanzas.

Yeh Desh Hamara Pyara Hindustan Jahan Se Nyara (Humjoli, 1946)

I chose this song because it works very well as a symbol of the cost of India’s independence in 1947 – Partition. Composed by Hafeez Khan and written by Anjum Pilibhiti, the song is sung by Noor Jehan, who was one of the Hindi film artists we lost to Pakistan in 1947. By 1946, the writing was on the wall for the British and preparations had begun to grant India independence. Thanks to the political climate at the time, the call for a free India is quite belligerent in this song:

Le ke rahenge hum azadi, Woh din aane wala hai

Jhanda apna saari duniya par lahrane wala hai

As we celebrate independence this year, let’s spare some thought for the artists of the film industry who chipped in with their bit in India’s freedom struggle.

Khemchand Prakash – The Royal Musician of Hindi Films

[This post originally appeared here.]

Khemchand Prakash was one of the giants of Hindi film industry. He shaped and defined Hindi film music when it was still in its nascent stages. In a short career spanning just about a decade, he left behind a legacy that exceeded his output as a music director.

Khemchand had an early start in music. His father, Pandit Govardhan Prasad, was a musician in the royal court of Jaipur and also taught him music. He worked as a court singer and then tried his hand at acting in films before found his true calling in film music. After assisting composer Timir Baran in a few films, Khemchand Prakash debuted as a music director for the film “Meri Aankhen” (1939).

Khemchand Prakash died in 1950 when he was only 43 years old. In this post I discuss in five songs what he accomplished in ten years and how his influence on film music could be felt long after he passed away.

Lo Kha Lo Madam Khana (Street Singer, 1938) 

This song was composed by R.C. Boral, not Khemchand Prakash. Khemchand sang this comic song and appeared on screen for it. The reason I included this song – Khemchand Prakash dances in it. In fact, he was a trained kathak dancer (he does a kathak move in the song) and it is said that it was this skill that helped him imbibe a strong sense of rhythm in his music.

Pehle Jo  Mohabbat Se Inkaar Kiya Hota (Pardesi, 1941)

Early on in his career Khemchand Prakash showed glimpses of his ability to set trends and his penchant to handle the female voice. “Pehle Jo Mohabbat…” catapulted singer-actress Khursheed from relative obscurity to becoming one of the leading female artists of the time. She had been around in the industry for almost a decade when this Khemchand Prakash song launched her into stardom and helped her bag coveted lead roles opposite K.L. Saigal in films that defined her career – “Bhakta Surdas” (1942) and “Tansen” (1943). In a few more years, he would transform the career of another singer and Hindi film music would never be the same again. 

Sapt Suran Teen Graam (Tansen, 1943)

Tansen was possibly the first film to embrace classical music with gusto. Backed by excellent subject matter and K.L. Saigal’s glorious voice, Khemchand Prakash composed songs that became big hits while retaining their authentic Hindustani classical base. As Naushad pointed out in an interview, a remarkable aspect of Khemchand’s music for “Tansen” was the use of Dhrupad, which was the style in which Mian Tansen used to sing, and not Khayal which was more common in Hindi films. The music of “Tansen” set the stage for a phase in Hindi films that borrowed heavily from classical music. At the forefront of this phase was Khemchand’s one-time assistant and admirer, Naushad. In “Baiju Bawra” (1952), Naushad emulated his guru by creating music that was a balance of mainstream and classicism and the film’s success triggered a spurt in films steeped in classical music.

Marne Ki Duaaen Kyon Maangoon (Ziddi, 1948)

Khemchand Prakash is credited with launching the voice that captured the nations imagination for decades to come – Kishore Kumar. He spotted the young Kishore’s singing talent early on gave him his first solo, “Marne Ki Duaaen…” for Ziddi (1948). Although Kishore sang the song in Saigal’s style, his potential was unmistakable. It was a travesty that despite a solid start – a song picturised on a superstar in the making, Dev Anand – Kishore Kumar’s singing career did not really take off after Ziddi. One can’t help but wonder if Kishore may have seen success sooner if Khemchand Prakash had lived longer.

Aayega Aanewala (Mahal, 1949)

If we had to pick one song that had the biggest impact on Hindi film music, many of us would pick “Aayega Aanewala” (music by Khemchand Prakash, sung by Lata Mangeshkar and written by Nakshab Jarchvi). This was the song that made Lata Mangeshkar a household name, a name that would be at the forefront of Hindi film music for the next 60 years or so.

The song was not an accidental success. Khemchand Prakash was among the few composers who heard the tremendous potential in Lata’s voice, when most of Bollywood was unsure if the thin voice of young Lata would appeal to the masses. The song was not just a result of Khemchand’s vision – there was painstaking work involved. In the song’s opening, Lata’s voice was supposed to sound like it was coming from a distance. She was asked to stand away from the microphone and walk towards it as she sang the opening line so that she was at the mike when the second verse started. It took many rehearsals to perfect just the song’s opening.

Such was the song’s success that radio stations were flooded with calls of people trying to find out who the singer was and for the first time, radio stations started announcing the name of artists before playing songs. The song was a precursor to a new genre of spooky songs which included Lata hits like “Kahin Deep Jale Kahin Dil” (“Bees Saal Baad”, 1962), “Naina Barse Rimjhim Rimjhim” (“Who Kaun Thi”, 1964), “Mere Mehboob Na Ja” (“Noor Mahal”, 1965) and “Mera Saaya Saath Hoga” (“Mera Saaya” 1966).

Sadly, Khemchand Prakash died the very next year after Mahal’s release, when he was still at his peak. Five songs and a few hundred words are just not enough to express his contribution to Hindi film music. I highly recommend that you further explore his compositions.

Jaidev – Quality Over Quantity

[This post originally appeared here.]

Jaidev was one of the most talented composers of the Hindi film industry. Despite his talent and the critical as well as popular acclaim many of his albums received, he wasn’t rewarded with the commercial success or the name recognition some of his peers enjoyed. After more than three decades in the film industry, he had only about 40 films to his credit.

Jaidev Verma was a child prodigy who could play the harmonica when he was only 5 years old. His career in Hindi films started in the 1930s as a singer-actor in a few films. In the mid-1930s he took a break from films and dedicated himself to learning music. Jaidev received formal training from several gurus including the legendary sarod player Ustad Ali Akbar Khan. The Ustad was responsible for Jaidev’s return to Hindi films. When the Ustad went to Bombay to work for films, Jaidev accompanied him. He assisted Ustad Ali Akbar Khan in the two films he composed music for – “Andhiyan” (1952) and “Humsafar” (1953). Later Jaidev worked as assistant to S.D. Burman before breaking out on his on with “Joru Ka Bhai” (1955).

In this post, I pick 10 songs from Jaidev’s 10 best film scores.

Hum Dono (1961)

In the 1950s, every Navketan film had S.D. Burman’s music and Jaidev assisted S.D. Burman in most of them. These films were “Taxi Driver” (1954), “House No. 44” (1955), “Funtoosh” (1956), “Nau Do Gyarah” (1957), “Kala Pani” (1958) and “Kala Bazar” (1960).  Jaidev’s persistence and loyalty was finally rewarded in 1961 at the age of 42! When Navkentan was looking to make the music for “Hum Dono”, S.D. Burman was unavailable due to some illness and Jaidev was chosen. Jaidev, powered by Sahir Ludhianvi’s lyrics, rose to the occasion and how! The fantastic score of “Hum Dono” sounds as fresh today as it did in 1961. Unfortunately, Jaidev had a falling out with Navketan and never worked for them again. My pick from “Hum Dono” is the short, sweet, santoor-kissed “Jahan Mein Aisa Kaun Hai” sung by Asha Bhosle.

Kinare Kinare (1963)

“Kinare Kinare”, starring Dev Anand and Meena Kumari, was one of the bigger films Jaidev got a chance to work in. The film didn’t do well and so it’s music, which had some endearing melodies, went unnoticed. Mukesh’s “Jab Gham-E-Ishq Sataata Hai” is one song I particularly love but my pick is the title song which Manna Dey renders so elegantly.

Reshma Aur Shera (1971)

After “Hum Dono”, Jaidev was relegated largely to B-grade films during the 1960s, with the exception of “Kinare Kinare” (1963) and “Mujhe Jeene Do” (1963). Although, his music rose above the films they featured in, film offers were few and far between. Just when thing were looking very bleak, “Reshma Aur Shera” came along and with it, Jaidev’s first of three National Film Awards for Best Music Direction. Synonymous with the film is the beautifully shot desert song “Tu Chanda Main Chandni”, a richly textured, complex composition with a dash of classical and a smatter of Rajasthani Maand. “Tu Chanda..” is the one of the earliest film songs I can think of that broke away from the standard mukhda – antara song structure. Interestingly, this feature came to become the signature of another genius composer who was also the winner of multiple National Film Awards like Jaidev, A.R. Rahman.

Faslah (1974)

While Jagjit Singh is credited with re-energizing the ghazal genre in the 1970s, I believe Jaidev played an important role as well. Some of the earliest instances of the modern ghazal with light, contemporary arrangements, simple melodies and fresh, young voices can be found in Jaidev’s compositions in the 1970s. Bhupinder, Hariharan, Chhaya Ganguly, Runa Laila and Penaz Masani were among some of the ghazal singers Jaidev mentored and worked with. “Dil Ne Tadap Tadap Ke” from “Faslah” was one such ghazal. My pick from “Faslah” though is another Bhupinder song, “Zindagi Cigarette Ka Dhuan” with some inspiring, if quirky, lyrics by Kaifi Azmi.

Ek Huns Ka Jora (1975)

For a film that sank without a trace, “Ek Huns Ka Jora” had some excellent music. This is the only film in this list that had songs sung by Kishore Kumar and one of only three films in which Jaidev employed his voice. I wonder why given the high quality of their output, which includes the popular, “Yeh Wohi Geet Hai Jisko Maine” (“Maan Jaiye”, 1972). My pick from “Ek Huns Ka Jora” is the Kishore – Asha duet “Pyar Se Tum Mile Mil Gayi Har Khushi”.

Alaap (1977)

“Alaap” is a seriously under-rated album. Jaidev’s robust score for this Hrishikesh Mukherjee film is built on a solid base of bhajans, classical music, Yesudas’ soothing baritone and some fine poetry. Although the film had some compelling acting and story-telling, and is considered one of the finer performances of Amitabh Bachchan, it didn’t do very well at the box-office. Perhaps, the audience was not willing to see the Angry Young Man portray a serious role that did not require him to beat up bad guys. My pick from “Alaap” is Harivansh Rai Bachchan’s “Koi Gaata Main So Jaata”. It is worthwhile noting that Jaidev also set to tune the senior Bachchan’s masterpiece, “Madhushala” (1976), in Manna Dey’s voice.

Gaman (1977)

1977 was a great year for Jaidev (he was 58 at the time!). He produced some great music that year – three of my picks in this list are from 1977 – and to top it off he won his second National Film Award for his score for Gaman. Gaman was short and extremely sweet score. It is said that Jaidev composed all songs of Gaman in one day flat – such was his genius! It is really hard to pick only one song from Gaman but Chhaya Ganguly’s National Award winning rendition of Makhdoom Mohiuddin’s words, “Aapki Raat Aati Rahi Raat Bhar”, is as good a pick as any.

Gharaonda (1977)

“Gharaonda” is another short and sweet score by Jaidev. While it is better known for Gulzar’s award winning “Do Deewane Shahar Mein” and it’s reprise “Ek Akela Is Shahar Mein”, my pick is the “Tumhen Ho Na Ho” which sounds like another Gulzar song but is in fact, written by Naqsh Lyallpuri. The song has some ground-breaking lyrics and the incredibly fresh voice of the Bangladeshi singer, Runa Laila.

Dooriyan (1979)

After “Gharaonda”, director Bhimsain, further explored human relationships in an urban setting in “Dooriyan”. Given the success of “Gharaonda”, he called in Jaidev again but the lyrics for the film were written by Sudarshan Faakir, an inspired choice as it turned out. One of the highlights of the film’s music was Anuradha Paudwal’s singing. In my opinion, this is the best she has ever sounded. The two Bhupinder – Anuradha duets in the film are absolute gems. My pick – “Zindagi Mere Ghar Aaana”.

Ankahee (1985)

“Ankahee” was Jaidev’s third National Film Award winning score. He passed away two years later, a sad, disillusioned man who did not get his due. “Ankahee” was a rare film whose score was dominated by bhajans. Thanks to some great renditions by Asha Bhosle and Pandit Bhimsen Joshi, Kabir and Tulsidas have never sounded so good on the big screen. My pick – Bhimsen Joshi’s “Thumak Thumak Pag Damak Kunj” which won him the National Film Award for Best Male Singer.

Honourable mentions:  “Joru Ka Bhai” (1955), “Mujhe Jeene Do” (1963), “Wohi Baat” (1977), “Aayi Teri Yaad” (1980) and “Jumbish” (1986).

You can explore more Jaidev hits here.

Anand Bakshi’s Generation-Spanning Work

[Starting this week, we’ll re-publish here the Bollywood Retrospective series published in DNA blogs. This post was originally published here.]

This post is based on a question posed a few years ago on Twitter by film historian Pavan Jha, a passionate follower and chronicler of films and film music. The question – “Name the 5 pairs of father-son composers for whom Anand Bakshi has written lyrics”. It’s a fantastic question because it gives us a sense of how extensive Anand Bakshi’s career was. Anand Bakshi’s long career is indicative of compromises he had to make along the way (quality may have suffered at the expense of quantity) but more importantly, it speaks to his ability to connect with the common man over several generations and his success in adapting himself to changing times.

Here are my picks of Anand Bakshi’s songs for the seven father-son composer pairs he worked with out of the 3000+ songs he wrote for Hindi films:

S.D. Burman and R.D. Burman

Anand Bakshi had debuted in 1958 and proven his mettle earlier with films like “Jab Jab Phool Khile” (1965) and “Devar” (1966), but he had to wait till 1969 for an opportunity to work with S.D. Burman. It is well known that R.D. Burman played an important role in the music of “Aradhana” (1969) – he was credited as Associate Music Director – and one wonders if the younger Burman had anything to do with picking Anand Bakshi for the first time for S.D. Burman. Anand Bakshi went on to work with S.D. Burman in many other films including “Jugnu” (1973), “Prem Nagar” (1974), and “Chupke Chupke” (1975), but couldn’t quite match Aradhana’s success. My pick from Aradhana – “Kora Kagaz Tha Yeh Man Mera”:

Anand Bakshi’s body of work with R.D. Burman is far richer than that with his father. It contains bona fide classics like “Kati Patang” (1970), “The Train” (1970), “Amar Prem” (1971), “Hare Rama Hare Krishna” (1971), “Namak Haram” (1973), “Aap Ki Kasam” (1974), “Ajanabee” (1974) and “Mehbooba” (1976. I consider “Amar Prem” to be the pinnacle of their partnership. Although I am in awe of the powerful lyrics of “Chingari Koi Bhadke”, my pick from the film is “Kuchh To Log Kahenge” because of the deftness with which Bakshi Saab took a song of compassion and transformed it into an unflattering commentary on society.

Roshan and Rajesh Roshan

Roshan was one of the big-name music directors to work with Anand Bakshi early on in his career but they worked together on just a handful of films. “Devar” (1966) was the only film in which the two enjoyed a measure of success. My pick from “Devar” is “Baharon Ne Mera Chaman Loot Kar” because it’s one of the few songs in which Anand Bakshi challenges the average Hindi film music listener with limited knowledge of Urdu while keeping his trademark simple core intact.

Rajesh Roshan’s only Filmfare Award came in a film for which Anand Bakshi wrote lyrics, “Julie” (1975). My pick though is from a film which came the next year “Tumhari Kassam” (1978).  “Hum Dono Milke Kagaz Pe Dil Pe” belonged to a category of Hindi film songs Anand Bakshi did very well in – the conversational romantic duet. As with other songs in this category penned by him, Anand Bakshi keeps the lovers’ exchange light-hearted, flirtatious, and very real.

Kalyandji – Anandji and Viju Shah (son of Kalyanji)

After almost a decade of a rather unremarkable career, it was Kalyanji – Anandji who gave Anand Bakshi a blockbuster hit record with “Jab Jab Phool Khile” (1965), and almost overnight transformed him into the industry’s leading lyricist. I am not particularly fond of the album but I am clearly in the minority. The film’s music was very popular and with its range of themes and genres, it had something for everyone. My pick from the film is “Ek Tha Gul Aur Ek Thi Bulbul”. Contrived as the situation is, I think Anand Bakshi does a masterful job of telling the film’s story in three verses.

In terms of popularity, “Mohra” (1994) and “Gupt” (1997), would surpass anything else Anand Bakshi wrote for Viju Shah. At the age of 64, Bakshi Saab managed to write something as juvenile (some may say crass) as “Tu Cheez Badi Hai Mast Mast”. We could see the song’s lyrics as an unnecessary compromise by a senior lyricist or we could marvel at an old man’s ability to read the pulse of a generation far removed. My favourite Viju Shah – Anand Bakshi coming together, however, happens in the lesser heard “Tere Mere Sapne” (1996) with its two outstanding romantic duets “Kuchh Mere Dil Ne Kaha” and “Mere Piya Maine Jise Yeh Dil Diya”.  My pick – “Mere Piya Maine Jise Yeh Dil Diya”.

Chitragupt and Anand – Milind

There isn’t a lot to choose from when it comes to Anand Bakshi’s lyrics for Chitragupt – just six songs from two obscure films “Aadhi Raat Ke Baad” (1965) and “Angaaray” (1975). In fact, I came upon those songs only while writing for this post. My pick is Lata Mangeshkar’s ghazal from “Aadhi Raat Ke Baad” – “Mera Dil Baharon Ka Woh Phool Hai“.

Anand – Milind did 10 films with Anand Bakshi but nothing really clicked. The duo could not really get the best out of the aging lyricist. My pick of this combination is an OK melody but to be honest, I picked it for the resplendent Madhuri Dixit. The song – Kumar Sanu and Sadhna Sargam’s “Kitna Pyar Karta Hoon” (“Phool”, 1993).

Anil Biswas and Utpal Biswas (part of Amar – Utpal)

Anand Bakshi worked with Anil Biswas when he had yet to make a mark and the composer’s career had begun to wane. They collaborated for less than ten songs. My pick is a chirpy, big-band song sung by Geeta Dutt – “Aa Dil Ki Baazi Laga” (“Jasoos”, 1957).

The roles were reversed when Bakshi worked with Amar – Utpal, consisting of Amar Haldipur and Anil Biswas’s son, Utpal Biswas. Bakshi was one of the most sought-after lyricists at the time and Amar – Utpal were struggling. Their first collaboration together, “Shahenshah” (1988), went on to become their most memorable work. My pick from the film is its title song – “Andheri Raaton Mein Sunsaan Raahon Par”.

Shiv – Hari and Rahul Sharma (son of Shivkumar Sharma)

Shiv – Hari worked with Anand Bakshi in 5 of their 8 film albums, including the hit soundtracks of “Chandni” (1989) and “Darr” (1993). My pick is from their last film together – “Tu Mere Samne” (“Darr”, 1993).

Rahul Sharma, a santoor player like his father Shivkumar Sharma, worked as a music director for only one film – “Mujhse Dosti Karoge” (2002). It was perhaps inevitable that he collaborated with the legendary lyricist – “Mujhse Dosti Karoge” (2002) was produced by Yash Raj Films, the banner that trusted Shiv – Hari with as many as 6 films, 3 of which featured Anand Bakshi. Unfortunately, Rahul Sharma couldn’t meet the high standards set by Shiv – Hari. My pick from the film – the lovely duet by Udit Narayan and Lata Mangeshkar – “Andekhi Anjaani Si”.

Nadeem – Shravan and Sanjeev – Darshan (sons of Shravan Rathod)

Nadeem – Sharavan did just two films with Anand Bakshi. Bakshi Saab’s advancing age and the disruption in Nadeem – Shravan’s career due to Nadeem’s legal troubles (he was named accused in T-Series’ Gulshan Kumar’s murder) meant that they didn’t work together after “Pardes” (1997). But what an album “Pardes” was! The film had many good songs and deservedly won Nadeem – Shravan a Screen the award for Best Music Director. My pick is the mellow love ballad sung by Kumar Sanu, “Do Dil Mil Rahe Hain”.

Anand Bakshi’s work for Sanjeev – Darshan came in the last two years of his life when he was a spent force, although still prolific and with the ability to produce a sporadic good song. I’d rather not pick a Sanjeev – Darshan song.

Instead, I will end the post with a song Anand Bakshi wrote for his most significant collaborators, Laxmikant – Pyarelal. About half of all the film songs Anand Bakshi ever wrote were for LP. Theirs was a hit-making team as they churned out one chartbuster after the other – “Do Raaste” (1969), “Aan Milo Sajna” (1970), “Mehboob Ki Mehndi” (1971), “Bobby” (1973), “Anurodh” (1977) and “Karz” (1980) – to name just a few. My pick is “Aadmi Musafir Hai” (“Apnapan”, 1977) which won Anand Bakshi the Filmfare award for Best Lyricist and is an apt song to revisit the beautiful memories the people’s poet left behind.

[Updated on 21/7/2021: The original article featured five father-son pairs who worked with Anand Bakshi. This post adds two more pairs – Anil Biswas and Amar – Utpal, and Shiv – Hari and Rahul Sharma.]

1930s Hindi Film Music – Now Available on MySwar

We had promised in February to complete the task of cataloguing the first decade of Hindi film music, starting with “Alam Ara” (1931), by April. We’re happy to report that the task is done right on time. MySwar now lists all the films released between 1931 and 1940 and their songs.

At this point, the data for film names, song listings and music related credits is complete to the extent that we have information for them. We have updated credits for directors, actors, banners for some of the films but this remains a work in progress. The task of linking to YouTube and iTunes (where available) is also in progress.

We hope you find this effort useful and invite any feedback you may have.

MySwar Updates

We’ve been busy making MySwar better these past few months and although we’re far from done, it’s a good time to review two of these updates:

  1. A few months ago, we started entering information for Hindi films released between 1931 and 1940. In a first pass, we entered the most important films released in this decade – films like “Alam Ara” (1931), “Devdas” (1935) and “Street Singer” (1938). In a second pass, we started filling in information for the remaining films. As of now, we’re done with the filmography for the period 1931 to 1936. Work on the period 1937 and 1940 is currently in progress. We expect this work to be done by April.
  2. MySwar now provides listing of albums by Label and listings of films by Banner/Production house. Labels displayed on album listing pages and on album pages are now hyperlinked. So is the Production company displayed on the album page. One cool thing about these listings are that we have linked related labels and production houses to provide a consolidated listing. For example, Polydor and Music India labels were merged into Universal and so clicking on either of the three gives the same consolidated listing. Same for NFDC and National Film Development Corporation Of India.

Please check out these updates and share any feedback you may have.

2016 Bollywood Music Review and Top 20 Songs


As in the past, critics were not happy with the state of Hindi film music in 2016. The charge – yet again – was that it Hindi films were using an “assembly line” approach to create songs using multiple composers and re-packaging hit songs from the past. One thing is certain – music is no longer crucial to the film’s storytelling. This is not an entirely new phenomenon. A spurt of action films in 1970s/1980s had also rendered film music insignificant for a period. Increasingly, music is being seen as a means to promote the film. To the surprise of film audiences, songs that top the charts, end up being abridged in the film or part of the film’s background score. Some don’t even make it to the film.

That said, 2016 did have some bright spots. Towering above the rest was Shankar – Ehsaan – Loy’s “Mirzya”. Given a free rein by Rakeysh Omprakash Mehra, S-E-L packed the album with uninhibited experimentation. “Mirzya” pushed the boundaries of film music and then some. The other highlight of the year was Amit Trivedi’s comeback after the brilliant, but commercially disastrous, “Bombay Velvet” (2015). He had three superb albums ins 2016 – “Udta Punjab”, “Fitoor” and “Dear Zindagi”. Pritam also did quite well in 2016 with “Ae Dil Hai Mushkil” and “Dangal” after a relatively lukewarm 2015. At the end of this post, we list the year’s 20 top-rated songs. Here is a longer list of 2016’s best Hindi film and non-film songs.

Some brilliant artists bode us farewell in 2016 – lyricist Nida Fazli, composers Ajit Varman and Omi (of Sonik – Omi), singer Mubarak Begum and Carnatic musician and vocalist M. Balamuralikrishna.

Some notable debuts in 2016 were:

Bollywood made 150 films with 872 songs between them in 2016.

The most prolific composers of the year were:

  1. Vishal – Shekhar – 5 films, 34 songs
  2. Amit Trivedi – 3 films, 24 songs
  3. Clinton Cerejo – 3 films, 20 songs

Vishal – Shekhar compensated for their dry spell in 2015 (they didn’t score any film that year) by being the most prolific composers in 2016. Unfortunately, the quality of their output didn’t match the quantity. Amit Trivedi won 2016 with his consistency, creating 3 albums that won the hearts of music lovers. After staying in the sidelines for years, Clinton Cerejo finally had the spotlight shining on him with 3 films as solo music director (although “Jugni” did have one song by A.R. Rahman, I think it’s fair to slot it as a solo Clinton album). It’s interesting to note that Mithoon and Ankit Tiwari, who followed closely with 18 songs each, had more films to their credit in 2016 than the top 3 most prolific composers. It turns out that they happen to be part of multi-composer albums quite a lot.

The most prolific lyricists of 2016 were:

  1. Kumaar – 27 films, 74 songs
  2. Manoj Muntashir – 16 films, 55 songs
  3. Amitabh Bhattacharya – 5 films, 21 songs
  4. Javed Akhtar – 5 films, 21 songs

Kumaar has been on the most prolific list for some years now. It’s amazing how little we know about a lyricist who’s been as prolific as him. Manoj Mutashir’s presence on the list was a surprise as well, with big name lyricists like Amitabh Bhattacharya and Javed Akhtar relegated to the third spot.

The most prolific male singers of 2016 were:

  1. Arijit Singh – 48 songs
  2. Vishal Dadlani – 23 songs
  3. Armaan Malik – 18 songs

Unsurprisingly, and in my opinion, deservedly, Arijit Singh dominated the male singers list with more than double the number of songs sung by the next most prolific singer.

The most prolific female singers of 2016 were:

  1. Sunidhi Chauhan – 22 songs
  2. Palak Muchhal – 19 songs
  3. Neha Kakkar – 18 songs

For some reason, two of my most favourite singers were conspicuously low key in 2016 – Shreya Ghoshal and Neeti Mohan. I hope they come back with a bang in 2017.

Based on the ratings of their 2016 songs, here are the best-rated artists of the year:

  1. Composers: Amit Trivedi, Vishal – Shekhar, Clinton Cerejo
  2. Lyricists: Amitabh Bhattacharya, Swanand Kirkire, Shellee
  3. Male Singers: Arijit Singh, Vishal Dadlani, Amit Trivedi

And the top 20 songs of 2016:

  1. Channa Mereya (Ae Dil Hai Mushkil)
  2. Aave Re Hichki (Mirzya)
  3. Dugg Duggi Dugg (Jugni)
  4. Hass Nach Le (Udta Punjab)
  5. Taareefon Se (Dear Zindagi)
  6. Haminastu (Fitoor)
  7. Pashmina (Fitoor)
  8. Hota Hai (Mirzya)
  9. Chitta Ve (Udta Punjab)
  10. Da Da Dasse (Udta Punjab)
  11. Ikk Kudi (Udta Punjab)
  12. Ud-Daa Punjab (Udta Punjab)
  13. Ae Dil Hai Mushkil (Ae Dil Hai Mushkil)
  14. Titli (Bollywood Diaries)
  15. Love You Zindagi (Dear Zindagi)
  16. Kaaga (Mirzya)
  17. Bulleya (Sultan)
  18. Rootha (Te3n)
  19. Tu Hi Hai (Dear Zindagi)
  20. Hone Do Batiyan (Fitoor)

Change in MySwar domain

Earlier this week, some of us observed that was inaccessible. We had recently moved to a new hosting provider and our first thought was that it was an issue at their end. Further investigation, however, revealed that we were most likely the target of a court order that had ISPs blocking our website. The court order is backed by Section 169A of the IT Act, 2008. We’re not the first website to have been subjected to this arbitrary and draconian law. Websites like Vimeo, Github and Mouthshut have been subjected to such blocks in the past.

One of the biggest issues of such blocks is that the targets have no idea who initiated the block and why. While we will explore legal options to remove the block, with our limited resources, this is going to be extremely difficult.

To work around this issue in the short term, we have moved our domain to This comes at great cost to us in terms of our branding and the goodwill of users who’ve encouraged us through the years. Unfortunately, this appears to be our best option for now. The block has also resulted in our apps not working. We’re working to publish the updated versions of the apps by next week.

As experts have noted, copyright owners are increasingly using court orders to mass block torrents and piracy sites around the time major films are released. Unfortunately, this process unfairly sweeps up legal, smaller websites like ours. In an attempt to address this problem, we will defer publishing of film albums to after this period.

We sincerely regret the inconvenience caused to our users and hope that they’ll stay with us while we figure out a long term solution.